A printed circuit board is the fundamental component of every electronic module. It is very important that the PCB is well designed, as this helps to avoid many problems at later stages.


 

Below you can find a short description of the PCB production stages to help you better understand the process and, thus allow you to avoid some basic mistakes often made during the project phase, and thus minimise the costs.

 


PCB production – stages:

1. Collecting all necessary information and converting it to production files

At this stage, additional questions for producer may arise regarding Gerber files and the depaneling of PCBs.

2. Photolithography

A laminate panel and the copper layers covering it are thoroughly cleaned and they’re then coated with a photosensitive film and photographic mask. Next, the panel is exposed to light – during this process, the areas hit by light harden, and the rest is washed off.

3. Etching the circuit

In this process, unnecessary copper is removed. PCB designers must be aware of the fact that copper tracks cannot lie too close to one another because the etching process requires an area of a certain size.

4. PCB laminating

When there is a large number of layers, the previously produced cores are placed on top of one another, layered with unhardened laminate, and then pressed together in a hydraulic press.

5. Drilling holes and cleaning

Drilling is done by in dedicated machines and is controlled by drill files. At this stage it is necessary to clean the PCB of all the remaining resin and glass fibre and to remove sharp edges.

6. Through-hole plating

PCB laminate is a non-conductive material, which is why it is necessary to use electroless plating.

7. Creating layers of external circuits

In this phase, actions from points 2 and 3 are repeated for the external layers of the printed circuit boards.

8. Finishing the PCB surface

Mechanical cleaning of the surface, layering of the solder mask, colouring the PCB, marking the soldering contacts, and covering it with a layer of flux.

9. Cutting PCB panels

Cutting the PCB to the size required by the customer. In this stage the board is scored (v-cut) and/or milled. The minimum distance between a track and the edge in a PCB should be 0.25mm.

10. Electric test of the PCB (e-test)

We encourage our customers to conduct an e-test for every project. Though initially this increases the production cost, it eliminates defective PCBs in the long run.

 


Parameters of circuit boards printed by us

Number of layers1-32

2-10 (rigid-flex; flexible)
Available LaminatesFR4

Aluminium

Teflon (PTFE)

Ceramiczny

CEM-1

CEM-3
Minimum laminate thickness0,2 mm
Maximum laminate thickness4,8 mm
Copper thickness18 μm, 35 μm, 70 μm
105 μm, 140 μm
Surface finishelectroless nickel immersion gold (ENiG)

Hot Air Solder Leveling (HASL Pb and Pbf)

hard gold

electroless silver

electroless tin

organic solderability preservatives
Available solder mask coloursgreen, white, black, red, blue

(also available in matt)
Finish typesremovable mask, graphite mask
Minimum hole size 0,2 mm
Minimum track width18 μm - 0,1 mm

35 μm - 0,15 mm

70 μm- 0,2 mm

105 μm - 0,25 mm
Maximum panel size500 x 675mm (in some cases we are able to provide a longer panel)
Mechanical toolingscoring, milling, incision, through-hole plating, connectivity testing
Viasblind, buried
Impedance control± 7% ÷ 10 %
Other optionsno drawing, no fixing the solder mask